Caisson– A hole bored into the earth for which to place steel reinforcement and pour concrete to form a pier like structure to act as a footing. These can utilized a lot for setting structures in deep water. In another application, these can be used in areas of permafrost or other unstable soils to reach a depth to provide the necessary stability either by reaching good soils below or by surface tension on the sides of the caisson. In residential, these are often used in a precast or cast in place form to support decks and other light structures.
Caisson Form– In residential construction, a thick cardboard tube used to pour concrete into to form a cylinder for a footing.
Cantilever– An overhang. Where a floor or roof system extends beyond a bearing condition below such as a bearing wall or a beam.
Cantilevered void– Foundation void material used in unusually expansive soils conditions. This void is “trapezoid” shaped and has vertical sides of 6″ and 4″ respectively.
Cap– The top piece of a column, pilaster, door cornice, molding, or fireplace. Usually used to finish off or complete a vertical structure.
Cap flashing– The portion of the flashing attached to a vertical surface to prevent water from migrating behind the base flashing.
Capital– The principal part of a loan, i.e. the original amount borrowed. In architecture, the crowning member of a column.
Capital and interest– A repayment loan and the most conventional form of home loan. The borrower pays an amount each month to cover the amount borrowed (or capital or principal) plus the interest charged on capital.
Capped rate– The mortgage interest rate will not exceed a specified value during a certain period of time, but it will fluctuate up and down below that level.
Carpet Backing– holds the pile fabric in place.
Case– The act of applying casing around openings.
Casement– Frames of wood or metal enclosing part (or all) of a window sash. May be opened by means of hinges affixed to the vertical edges.
Casement Window– a window that is attached to its frame by one or more hinges at the side.
Casing– The side and head pieces of wood trim molding installed around a door or window or other opening.
Caulk, Caulking– a material used to seal joints or seams against leakage in various structures and piping. To fill a joint with mastic or asphalt plastic cement to prevent leaks.
(CCA) Chromated Copper Arsenate– A wood preservative containing compounds of chromium, copper, and arsenic, in various proportions. It is used to impregnate timber and other wood products, especially those intended for outdoor use, in order to protect them from attack by microbes and insects. Like other copper-based wood preservatives, it imparts a greenish tint to treated timber.
Celotex TM– a high performance, rigid polyisocyanurate insulation board. This board comes in many thicknesses and has an aluminum foil backing on both sides. (Please investigate the use of this product and fire ratings before installation. https://inform.celotex.co.uk/ – Grenfell Tower Fire)
Ceiling joist– One of a series of parallel framing members used to support ceiling loads and supported in turn by larger beams, girders or bearing walls. Also called roof joists.
Cement– The gray powder that is the “glue” in concrete. Portland cement. Also, any adhesive.
Ceramic tile- A man-made or machine-made clay tile used to finish a floor or wall. Generally used in bathtub and shower enclosures and on counter tops.
CFM (cubic feet per minute)- A rating that expresses the amount of air a blower or fan can move. The volume of air (measured in cubic feet) that can pass through an opening in one minute.
Chair rail– Interior trim material installed about 3-4 feet up the wall, horizontally.
Chalk line– A line made by snapping a taut string or cord dusted with chalk. Used for alignment purposes.
Change order– A written document which modifies the plans and specifications and/or the price of the construction Contract.
Chase– A framed enclosed space around a flue pipe or a channel in a wall, or through a ceiling for something to lie in or pass through.
Chink– To install fiberglass insulation around all exterior door and window frames, wall corners, and small gaps in the exterior wall.
Chip Board– A manufactured wood panel made out of 1″- 2″ wood chips and glue. Often used as a substitute for plywood in the exterior wall and roof sheathing. Also called OSB (Oriented Strand Board) or wafer board.
Circuit– The path of electrical flow from a power source through an outlet and back to ground.
Circuit Breaker– A device which looks like a switch and is usually located inside the electrical breaker panel or circuit breaker box. It is designed to (1) shut of the power to portions or all of the house and (2) to limit the amount of power flowing through a circuit (measured in amperes). 110 volt household circuits require a fuse or circuit breaker with a rating of 15 or a maximum of 20 amps. 220 volt circuits may be designed for higher amperage loads e.g. a hot water heater may be designed for a 30 amp load and would therefore need a 30 amp fuse or breaker.
Class “A”– Optimum fire rating issued by Underwriter’s Laboratories on roofing. The building codes in some areas require this type of roofing for fire safety.
Class “C”– Minimum fire rating issued by the Underwriters’ Laboratories for roofing materials.
Clean out– An opening providing access to a drain line. Closed with a threaded plug.
Clip ties– Sharp, cut metal wires that protrude out of a concrete foundation wall (that at one time held the foundation form panels in place).
CO– An abbreviation for “Certificate of Occupancy“. This certificate is issued by the local municipality and is required before anyone can occupy and live within the home. It is issued only after the local municipality has made all inspections and all monies and fees have been paid.
Cold air return– The ductwork (and related grills) that carries room air back to the furnace for re-heating.
Collar– Preformed flange placed over a vent pipe to seal the roofing above the vent pipe opening. Also called a vent sleeve.
Collar beam– Nominal 1- or 2-inch-thick members connecting opposite roof rafters. They serve to stiffen the roof structure.
Column– A vertical structural compression member which supports loads.
Combustion air– The duct work installed to bring fresh, outside air to the furnace and/or hot water heater. Normally 2 separate supplies of air are brought in: One high and One low.
Combustion chamber– The part of a boiler, furnace or wood stove where the burn occurs; normally lined with firebrick or molded or sprayed insulation.
Compression web– A member of a truss system which connects the bottom and top chords and which provides downward support.
Compressor– A mechanical device that pressurizes a gas in order to turn it into a liquid, thereby allowing heat to be removed or added. A compressor is the main component of conventional heat pumps and air conditioners. In an air conditioning system, the compressor normally sits outside and has a large fan (to remove heat).
Concrete– The mixture of Portland cement, sand, gravel, and water. Used to make garage and basement floors, sidewalks, patios, foundation walls, etc. It is commonly reinforced with steel rods (rebar) or wire screening (mesh).
Concrete block – A hollow concrete ‘brick’ often 8″ x 8″ x 16″ in size.
Concrete board – A panel made out of concrete and fiberglass usually used as a tile backing material.
Condensate line– The copper pipe that runs from the outside air conditioning condenser to the inside furnace ( where the a/c coil is located).
Condensation– Beads or drops of water (and frequently frost in extremely cold weather) that accumulate on the inside of the exterior covering of a building. Use of louvers or attic ventilators will reduce moisture condensation in attics. A vapor barrier under the gypsum lath or dry wall on exposed walls will reduce condensation.
Condensing unit – The outdoor component of a cooling system. It includes a compressor and condensing coil designed to give off heat.
Conditions, Covenants, and Restrictions (CC and Rs) – The standards that define how a property may be used and the protections the developer makes for the benefit of all owners in a subdivision.
Conduction– The direct transfer of heat energy through a material.
Conductivity– The rate at which heat is transmitted through a material.
Conduit, electrical– A pipe, usually metal, in which wire is installed.
Construction contract– A legal document which specifies the what-when-where-how-how much and by whom in a construction project. A good construction contract will include:
- The contractor’s registration number.
- A statement of work quality such as ‘Standard Practices of the Trades’ or ‘according to Manufacturers Specifications’.
- A set of Blue Prints or Plans
- A construction timetable including starting and completion dates.
- A set of Specifications
- A Fixed Price for the work, or a Time and Materials formula.
- A Payment Schedule.
- Any Allowances.
- A clause which outlines how any disputes will be resolved.
- A written Warranty.
Construction documents– Capitalized, because this is a formal set of drawings that is not just designed to obtain a building permit, but serve as the main source of information the builder turns to for information on what to build and how to build it. This set of documents contains site information, general information regarding building code requirements, floor plan layout, elevation design, structural sheets, details of both architectural and structural elements and information regarding electrical, mechanical and plumbing components and their installation.
Construction drywall– A type of construction in which the interior wall finish is applied in a dry condition, generally in the form of sheet materials or wood paneling as contrasted to plaster.
Construction, frame– A type of construction in which the structural components are wood or depend upon a wood frame for support.
Continuity tester– A device that tells whether a circuit is capable of carrying electricity.
Contractor– A company licensed to perform certain types of construction activities. In most states, the generals contractor’s license and some specialty contractor’s licenses don’t require of compliance with bonding, workmen’s compensation and similar regulations. Some of the specialty contractor licenses involve extensive training, testing and/or insurance requirements. There are various types of contractors:
- General contractor – responsible for the execution, supervision and overall coordination of a project and may also perform some of the individual construction tasks. Most general contractors are not licensed to perform all specialty trades and must hire specialty contractors for such tasks, e.g. electrical, plumbing.
- Remodeling contractor – a general contractor who specializes in remodeling work.
- Specialty contractor – licensed to perform a specialty task e.g. electrical, side sewer, asbestos abatement.
- Sub contractor – a general or specialty contractor who works for another general contractor.
Control joint– Tooled, straight grooves made on concrete floors to “control” where the concrete should crack.
Convection– Currents created by heating air, which then rises and pulls cooler air behind it. Also see radiation.
Conventional loan A mortgage loan not insured by a government agency (such as FHA or VA)
Convertibility The ability to change a loan from an adjustable rate schedule to a fixed rate schedule.
Cooling load– The amount of cooling required to keep a building at a specified temperature during the summer, usually 78° F, regardless of outside temperature.
Coped– Removing the top and bottom flange of the end(s) of a metal I-beam. This is done to permit it to fit within, and bolted to, the web of another I-beam in a “T” arrangement
Coped joint– Cutting and fitting woodwork to an irregular surface.
Corbel– The triangular, decorative and supporting member that holds a mantel or horizontal shelf.
Corner bead– A strip of formed sheet metal placed on outside corners of drywall before applying drywall ‘mud’.
Corner boards– Used as trim for the external corners of a house or other frame structure against which the ends of the siding are finished.
Corner braces– Diagonal braces at the corners of the framed structure designed to stiffen and strengthen the wall.
Cornice– Overhang of a pitched roof , usually consisting of a fascia board, a soffit and appropriate trim moldings.
Counter flashing– A metal flashing usually used on chimneys at the roofline to cover shingle flashing and used to prevent moisture entry.
Counterfort– A foundation wall section that strengthens (and generally perpendicular to) a long section of foundation wall
Course– A layer of the same unit running horizontally in a wall. It can also be defined as a continuous row of any masonry unit such as bricks, concrete masonry units (CMU), stone, shingles, tiles, etc. Also a term used for roofing horizontal runs.
Cove molding– A molding with a concave face used as trim or to finish interior corners.
Crawl space– A shallow space below the living quarters of a house, normally enclosed by the foundation wall and having a dirt floor.
Credit rating– A report ordered by a lender from a credit agency to determine a borrower’s credit habits.
Cricket– A second roof built on top of the primary roof to increase the slope of the roof or valley. A saddle-shaped, peaked construction connecting a sloping roof with a chimney. Designed to encourage water drainage away from the chimney joint.
Cripple– The short wood stud walls that enclose a crawl space under the first floor. Cripple walls are used to support a dwelling between the concrete foundation and the floor of a dwelling and to elevate the dwelling above ground to allow access to the utility lines or to level a dwelling built on a slope. Also used to describe the short wall above or below an opening.
Cross bridging– Diagonal bracing between adjacent floor joists, placed near the center of the joist span to prevent joists from twisting.
Cross Tee– Short metal “T” beam used in suspended ceiling systems to bridge the spaces between the main beams.
Cove Ceiling– A ceiling that has had the visual appearance of the point where the ceiling meets the walls improved by the addition of coving. It can also refer to an arched-dome ceiling, like in a mosque.
Crown molding– A molding used on cornice or wherever an interior angle is to be covered, especially at the roof and wall corner.
CS– Used to mean Case Study or Seismic Response Coefficient in the IBC.
Culvert– Round, corrugated drain pipe (sometimes 15″ or 18″ in diameter) that is installed beneath a driveway and parallel to and near the street.
Cupping– A type of warping that causes boards to curl up at their edges.
Curb– The short elevation of an exterior wall above the deck of a roof. Normally a 2 by 6 box (on the roof) on which a skylight is attached.
Curb stop– Normally a cast iron pipe with a lid (@ 5″ in diameter) that is placed vertically into the ground, situated near the water tap in the yard, and where a water cut-off valve to the home is located (underground). A long pole with a special end is inserted into the curb stop to turn off/on the water.
Cut-in brace– Nominal 2-inch-thick members, usually 2 by 4’s, cut in between each stud diagonally.